Definition: a Null Hypothesis or H0 is a theory in hypothesis testing that has been put forward, either because it is believed to be true or because it is to be used as a basis for argument, but has not been proved.
For example, in a clinical trial of a new drug, the null hypothesis might be that the new drug is no better, on average, than the current drug:
H0: there is no difference between the two drugs on average.
We give special consideration to the null hypothesis, because that one relates to the statement being tested, whereas the alternative hypothesis relates to the statement to be accepted if / when the null is rejected.
The final conclusion is always given in terms of the null hypothesis.
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